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使用Linux系统(PC机)做路由转发

时间:2015-04-01来源:linux.cn 作者:Linux中国

1、网络拓扑
网络拓扑如下所示,我们在这里用到了三台机子做实验,分别是①、④、⑦号机,使用①号机ping⑦号机,④号机作为路由转发。
使用Linux系统(PC机)做路由转发


2、错误的路由配置

首先我们使用如下的配置方法,配置这三台机子的路由表:

1)在①号机种配置如下,让目的网段是10.0.4.0/24的从eth1端口出去

route add -net 10.0.4.0/24 dev eth1

在①号机的查看路由表输入如下命令:

route -n

①号机的路由表的结果如下:
使用Linux系统(PC机)做路由转发

2)在⑦号机使用同样方法配置路由,结果如下:
使用Linux系统(PC机)做路由转发

3)在4号机配置路由转发功能,即将/etc/sysctl.conf文件里面的net.ipv4.ip_forward的值置1:
使用Linux系统(PC机)做路由转发

注:以上图片上传到红联Linux系统教程频道中。

4)所有的配置已经完成,我们在①号机ping④号机

ping 10.0.4.3

结果如下,即ping 不通:

PING 10.0.4.3(10.0.4.3)56(84) bytes of data.
From10.0.1.3 icmp_seq=2DestinationHostUnreachable
From10.0.1.3 icmp_seq=3DestinationHostUnreachable
From10.0.1.3 icmp_seq=4DestinationHostUnreachable
From10.0.1.3 icmp_seq=6DestinationHostUnreachable
From10.0.1.3 icmp_seq=7DestinationHostUnreachable
From10.0.1.3 icmp_seq=8DestinationHostUnreachable

这里为了方便研究,把①号机的eth1配置放出来

eth1 Link encap:EthernetHWaddr00:16:EC:AF:CB:CB
inet addr:10.0.1.3Bcast:10.255.255.255Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::216:ecff:feaf:cbcb/64Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500Metric:1
RX packets:4564 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:6688 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:459463(448.6KiB) TX bytes:546633(533.8KiB)
Interrupt:23Base address:0x6000

在①号机ping 的同时,我在④号机抓eth1包,结果如下:

[root@h4~]# tcpdump -i eth1 -enn
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed,use-v or-vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
15:26:44.38861400:16:ec:af:cb:cb > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 60:Request who-has 10.0.4.3 tell 10.0.1.3, length 46
15:26:45.39101400:16:ec:af:cb:cb > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 60:Request who-has 10.0.4.3 tell 10.0.1.3, length 46
15:26:47.38782100:16:ec:af:cb:cb > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 60:Request who-has 10.0.4.3 tell 10.0.1.3, length 46
15:26:48.39122000:16:ec:af:cb:cb > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 60:Request who-has 10.0.4.3 tell 10.0.1.3, length 46
15:26:49.39262100:16:ec:af:cb:cb > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 60:Request who-has 10.0.4.3 tell 10.0.1.3, length 46

可见①号一直在寻找配有10.0.4.3 IP的机子的mac地址,即一直在发arp包。但是路由器(④号机)默认是不转发arp报文的,所有①号机永远也ping不通⑦号机。


3、正确的配置

在①号机种配置路由,命令如下:

route add -net 10.0.4.0/24 gw 10.0.1.2

这时候①号机的路由表:

[root@h1 ~]#
[root@h1 ~]# route -n
Kernel IP routing table
DestinationGatewayGenmaskFlagsMetricRefUseIface
10.0.4.010.0.1.2255.255.255.0 UG 000 eth1
10.0.5.00.0.0.0255.255.255.0 U 000 eth2
10.0.1.00.0.0.0255.255.255.0 U 000 eth1
192.168.99.00.0.0.0255.255.255.0 U 100 eth0
0.0.0.0192.168.99.10.0.0.0 UG 000 eth0

同样的方法配置⑦号机的路由表

root@h7:~# route -n
内核 IP 路由表
目标网关子网掩码标志跃点引用使用接口
0.0.0.0192.168.99.10.0.0.0 UG 000 eth0
10.0.1.010.0.4.2255.255.255.0 UG 000 eth1
10.0.4.00.0.0.0255.255.255.0 U 100 eth1
10.0.7.00.0.0.0255.255.255.0 U 100 eth2
192.168.99.00.0.0.0255.255.255.0 U 100 eth0

下面再进行ping测试,在①号机ping⑦号机,结果能够ping通。在这里我们问了方便分析,首先列出各网卡的MAC地址

①号机 eth1:HWaddr00:16:EC:AF:CB:CB
④号机 eth1:HWaddr40:61:86:32:8F:0B
④号机 eth4:HWaddr40:61:86:32:8F:0E
⑦号机 eth1:HWaddr00:25:90:93:40:79

④号机eth1抓包如下:

[root@h4 ~]# tcpdump -i eth1 -enn
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed,use-v or-vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
16:02:26.80944500:16:ec:af:cb:cb >40:61:86:32:8f:0b, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 1, length 64
16:02:26.81072340:61:86:32:8f:0b>00:16:ec:af:cb:cb, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 1, length 64
16:02:27.81184700:16:ec:af:cb:cb >40:61:86:32:8f:0b, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 2, length 64
16:02:27.81313640:61:86:32:8f:0b>00:16:ec:af:cb:cb, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 2, length 64
16:02:28.81324800:16:ec:af:cb:cb >40:61:86:32:8f:0b, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 3, length 64
16:02:28.81455140:61:86:32:8f:0b>00:16:ec:af:cb:cb, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 3, length 64
16:02:29.81464800:16:ec:af:cb:cb >40:61:86:32:8f:0b, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 4, length 64

④号机eth4抓包如下:

root@h4 ~]# tcpdump -i eth4 -enn
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed,use-v or-vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth4, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
16:02:26.80946040:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 1, length 64
16:02:26.81071500:25:90:93:40:79>40:61:86:32:8f:0e, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 1, length 64
16:02:27.81185340:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 2, length 64
16:02:27.81313000:25:90:93:40:79>40:61:86:32:8f:0e, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 2, length 64
16:02:28.81325540:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 3, length 64
16:02:28.81454500:25:90:93:40:79>40:61:86:32:8f:0e, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 3, length 64

⑦号机eth1抓包如下:

root@h7:~# tcpdump -i eth1 -enn
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed,use-v or-vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
16:02:27.22285340:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 1, length 64
16:02:27.22286700:25:90:93:40:79>40:61:86:32:8f:0e, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 1, length 64
16:02:28.22522640:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 2, length 64
16:02:28.22523700:25:90:93:40:79>40:61:86:32:8f:0e, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 2, length 64
16:02:29.22663840:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 3, length 64
16:02:29.22664900:25:90:93:40:79>40:61:86:32:8f:0e, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.4.3>10.0.1.3: ICMP echo reply, id 8079, seq 3, length 64
16:02:30.22805940:61:86:32:8f:0e>00:25:90:93:40:79, ethertype IPv4(0x0800), length 98:10.0.1.3>10.0.4.3: ICMP echo request, id 8079, seq 4, length 64

从抓取的包中我们不难看出,①号机在ping ⑦号机时,由于其中路由表配置了通过四号机的eth1(10.0.1.2)地址,这个地址对应的mac①号机已经缓存了,所有没有进行arp广播就直接开 始发送ICMP包,并且目的ip是⑦号机,目的MAC是④号机的eth1的,之后在④号机路由中又将目的MAC变成了④号机的eth4的,目的ip不变,回来的过程相仿。


4、结论

由于linux路由器默认不转发arp报文到,所有若像”错误的配置“那样配置路由,①号机一直处在询问目的MAC的阶段而无法让路由器④号机转发数据包,所有我们可以通过”正确的配置“那样配置路由让①号机使用④号机eth1的MAC出去,然后再一步一步转发。或者通过”错误的配置“那样配置路由,然后在 ④号机中使用arp代理,从而让①号机获得⑦号机的MAC,从而从发送arp报文阶段到发送ICMP包阶段。

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